Layer 0 is the lowest layer. It is the foundation upon which the higher layers are built. For example, the first component of Layer 0 provides the necessary networking capabilities necessary for building peer-to-peer networks.

Layer 0 is made up of two components that can be reused amongst Layer 1 technologies. These are the standardised basic building blocks out of which some layer 1 technologies can be assembled.


(1) [[Peer-to-peer (p2p) internet overlay protocols|peer to peer internet overlay protocols]] Devp2p Libp2p

(2) [[Platform-neutral computation description language|platform neutral computation description language]] EVM WASM * UTXO