Welcome to the Web3 Technology Stack

Disclaimer: This open source resource is a work in progress and is not an exhaustive list of all the projects in the Web3 Tech Stack. This resource should not be interpreted as a promotion or validation of any of the projects herein.


Web 3 is the vision of the serverless internet, the decentralised web. An internet where users are in control of their own data, identity, and destiny.

The [[Web3 Foundation|Web3-Mission-and-Background]] nurtures and stewards technologies and applications in the fields of decentralized web software protocols, particularly those which utilize modern cryptographic methods to safeguard decentralization, to the benefit and for the stability of the Web 3 ecosystem.

Web 3 Tech Stack

The Components of the Tech Stack

Layer 0

  1. P2P internet overlay protocols
    • e.g. Devp2p, Libp2p
  2. Platform-neutral computation description language
    • e.g. EVM, WASM, UTXO

Layer 1

  1. Data distribution protocols
    • e.g. IPFS, Bluzelle, Fluence, Swarm
  2. Low-trust interaction platforms
    • e.g. Polkadot
  3. Low-trust interaction protocols
    • e.g. Ethereum, Bitcoin, Zcash, Polkadot parachains
  4. Transient data messaging
    • e.g. Whisper, Matrix

Layer 2

  1. Second layer protocols
    • e.g. (various)

Layer 3

  1. Protocol-extensible developer APIs & languages
    • e.g. Web3.js, ether.js, oo7.js, Solidity, Rust

Layer 4

  1. Protocol-extensible user-interface crade
    • e.g. Status, Metamask, MyCrypto, Parity